If you’re dealing with established furnishings and materials or “reading from scratch” with an empty space, you can still use the design concepts and values as a reference while selecting anything. The components are the instruments or raw materials, which are the fundamentals of a painter just like paintings. The architectural elements involve room, axis, form, colour, and texture. The design concepts apply to how you use certain components. The design principles are balance, accent, rhythm, proportion and scale, and harmony and unity.Have a look at Image Line Painting for more info on this.
Principle #1: Balancing Visual equilibrium is called harmony in a space. It offers a sense of relaxation and a feeling of fulfilment. A well-balanced space requires close analysis of items being positioned due to their visual weight. The form, design, color and texture components also help decide the perceived weight of an item which is the amount of room it appears to fill. Balance often relates to how you put the elements (line, form, color and texture) within a space and where. Seek to spread the components all over the space to preserve equilibrium.
Formal equilibrium, also called symmetrical equilibrium, produces a mirror image effect.
Informal equilibrium uses different artifacts with the same visual weight to establish harmony in a space. It is more spontaneous and subtle and gives a warmer, more casual feeling.
Principle #2: Concentration Concentration is the Room’s focal area. As you enter the room, the focal point should be obvious; it’s the area to which your eye is drawn. Anything is included, as the point of focus-a fireplace, artwork or a window decoration showing a stunning view-must be appropriately underlined such that all else directs the eye into the region included. By making efficient use of line, form, color and texture you can bring focus to a natural focal point or build one in a space.
Principle #3: Movement Movement provides the eye control training when it travels through a space. Rhythm makes the eye travel effortlessly from one entity to another, producing a rhythm that shows the eye that a single whole belongs to all in the space. Rhythm is produced by thread, form, color or texture repeats. It can be generated by progression too. Progressive rhythm is a gradual increase in size, direction or color or decrease.
Principle #4: Relationships between proportion and size in a space are determined by proportion and volume. Proportion relates to how the components within an entity contribute to the entire entity. Scale refers to the scale of an item as opposed to the scale of the location it is situated in.
Principle #5: Peace and Cohesion A well-designed space is a single object incorporating all the other components and design concepts. Unity provides a feeling of justice. There is a consistency of sizes and shapes, and color and pattern harmony. The ultimate aim of decorating is to create a room with a sense of unity and harmony and rhythm. This is accomplished by repeating the elements, balancing them throughout the room, and then adding a little variety so the room has its own personality sense. Too much consistency can be boring; undue variation may create a sensation of restlessness. A key to good design is juggling the elements and principles to get the right mix.